Thursday, September 29, 2011

Reflections on Parenting

In two weeks my oldest child turns 21. Between this milestone and my "baby" starting college this year I have decided to take a look back on the last few decades and try to decipher what I have done, bad as well as good. I know that it is quite easy for us to congratulate ourselves on a job well done.  But we never actually reevaluate what we could have done differently.

What started me thinking about reevaluation and reflection was an interesting conversation I had with my oldest. The other day CM1 wanted a time machine so he could travel back in time and undo the fact that he hadn't studied as much as he thought he should have. But since a timemachine is unavailable to him he could not. He had to deal with what was and move on from there. Well I do not possess a time-machine either so instead of time travel, I have made up a list, not of events per se, but things I wish I could redo....I wish that I:

1. Would have listened to my inner self and understood that there was really something not right with my oldest instead of searching out those who supported the idea that he was just "different in a good way," that there was no disability. I lost count of the amount of times I heard that CM1 "marched to the beat of his own drummer" and thought it was cute.

2. Would have sought out several opinions even when the pediatrician kept telling me there was nothing wrong but a speech delay and that the world just didn't understand my child. The pediatrician felt that CM1 was too smart for the average nursery school. He was reading and writing (and understanding it all) by the time he was two-years-old.

3. Would have made us move to the suburbs when CM1 was starting nursery school instead of playing the ignorant game found among the snobs and the elites in the City. I should have known that there are reasons that people run to the burbs and that it should not have taken trauma (the final straw was when the public-school kindergarten teacher put CM1 in the coatroom and wouldn't let him in class) for me to grow up and realize that we were better off as a family in the country.

4. Would have found a way to financially and legally hurt those who hurt my child. I would have loved to ruin their careers, which is what they deserved. (Yes I wrote letters to the NYC district but nothing really ever came of it.) I couldn't give CM1 what he needed and go after those lowlifes, but I wish I had found a way.

5. Would have stood up to those who were nasty and obnoxious when it came to my child from the first nursery school; to even the original psychiatrist who abandoned CM1 during a crisis because I tried to hold him to his word about what he would do for my son; to the people in town who were horrible, ignorant, rude and condescending about the boys, and special education in general.

I did get a bit of satisfaction though, when the PTA called for senior dues for CM1's last year in high school. The PTA mom went into this shpiel telling me how important that year was to the children. Well this woman got an earful from me about the wonderful seniors she was so worried about; how horrible and cruel they had been to my son. The only thing she could say was "I didn't know." Sadly of course she didn't know, but then the question becomes why didn't she? At times I feel bad that I yelled at her, but in reality, this is a very small town and all the students knew who my son was and they knew how he was treated. That the parents are too blind to see that their little darlings are little-shits, well too bad.

6. Would have never listened to anyone's excuses for their behavior toward my son. When the guidance counselor in the elementary school in NYC told me that the teachers in the school are a culture unto themselves, I should have told him that they need to grow up and that so did he; that it was not OK to be mean to a child no matter what they had to deal with-if you are a teacher it is part of your job.

Did learn though from that incident latter on...there was trouble with the teachers at the middle school when CM2 was in 5th grade. The VP of the middle school tried to use that same excuse for the teachers, (culture unto themselves) but this time, I said exactly what I should have said for CM1. You know he had no answer. Because there is no answer for when adults act like entitled brats and refuse to help the children they are charged with educating.

Of course try telling that to the NYC Teacher's Union and see what happens. It was they who yelled, literally yelled like the filthy cows that they were,  at me that they were entitled to their coffee breaks and not to have to deal with my son. The principal of that elementary also lied to us and told us they didn't have to keep CM1 in school since kindergarten wasn't mandated by law. Of course by the time we had a similar problem here in the burbs with the Teacher's Union (high school this time) we knew how to handle it and threatened them within an inch of their bank accounts and their 401Ks. (Understanding civil rights laws and how to apply them to your child does come in handy.)

7. Would have stopped worrying about having friends and trying to find people to talk to earlier in my life when I was dealing with the newness of this disability. I would have stopped worrying why others don't like me or want to be my friend and recognize that the loss is theirs and not mine. I would have recognized their shallowness for what it was instead of thinking that their preoccupation with clothes, shoes, vacation and household help was interesting. I would have seen it for what it was, my attempt to escape from the daily real-world worries I dealt with. Don't ever give up who you are. It will not make you happy, give you contentment, nor pride in yourself.

8. Would stop taking the blame for others stupidity and lack of class. When people were mean to the boys I would have, instead of not wanting to cause trouble in town, called them out for the lowlifes that they were/are. I generally just walked away. No the suburbs didn't solve all our problems, luckily it did solve the school problems. But the morons who were nasty and elitist in the City seemed to follow us out here to the country.

This included the town rec-administrator who thought it was OK for a counselor to be mean to CM2 when he was 4 years old and having trouble adjusting to nursery-school-town-day camp. Luckily we were able to withdraw CM 2 and put him in private camp. That particular administrator was gone the next year too, but it always leaves me wondering where all these useless disturbed horrible people go and how many more children they abuse before they are done and retired.

9. Would have been more forceful in demanding that the bullies who picked on CM1 be held to account. That means demanding that the school call the bullies parents and have the school threaten them and their children within an inch of their futures. (Now when it came to CM2, for those relatively few incidents, the schools did call the parents. Either the rules changed or maybe I did for I did ask about the bullies parents and whether they were called.)

But the truth is that the administration in the middle school was awash in political correctness and not wanting to make waves in the community. Then when it came to high school, the original administration tried to blame everything on my aspergean son (CM1) instead of on the culprits, including a classically autistic boy who somehow didn't know not to hit my son but could drive himself back and forth to school. Did lodge a formal complaint however, and those members of the administration were replaced. Of course I doubt it was just because of my problems with them.

Remember if the administration is being a jerk to you, you can bet they are like that with everyone. I would have remembered that a person's personality doesn't change just because they are dealing with you. If they are obnoxious and a phoney with you then they are obnoxious and phonies with everyone.

10. Would have done better financially. I would have figured out a better way to handle our money and not be caught flat footed when the economy collapsed. I would not be blindsided and foolish enough to think that the economy can run on unrealistic achievement and is a never ending money pit. I would prepare for that rainy day as if it were going to be a monsoon. (Which in a way it already was).

It is so important to be financially forward thinking when dealing with special needs children. You need to recognize that you will NOT be able to have it all, but you may be able to help your child the best that you can. It is a GREAT fault of mine that I thought we could find a way around the financial realities of parenting special needs children. It is a foolishness that I am working on rectifying. It will take a huge effort on our part to fix the financial stew we have found ourselves in (and honestly one of our own making in many ways), but we are going to do our best while still providing the boys with everything they presently need.

The reality  of the situation is that with everything that  still makes me angry, it is less about those who were mean and more about my own inability to deal with the situation. I am more upset about what I perceive as my own failings when I didn't do the job I should have on behalf of my children. I suppose I put too much emphasis on the kindness of others and was always caught unawares by just how cruel others could be even when dealing with disabled children. Unfortunately I was so taken aback at times by others inhumanity, that I did not have the skills to help my children the way they should have been helped.

But with each experience I learned and I garnered knowledge on what to do and how to handle the meanies. I learned to plan for every eventuality and hope that I never had to embrace my inner bitch. Throughout the decades that we have experienced and learned and fought and cried I came to understand several things about people, as if these weren't apparent at the outset:

- People are selfish and venal creatures. If you come across a truly giving person you are lucky. (We did hit the jackpot for the most part in our district. For every poor experience in the school system, we were ten fold lucky with positive teachers and as far as CM2 is concerned that even translated into overwhelmingly kind peers.)

- Never take anyone else's word about what the story is concerning your child. Investigate learn what is truly happening with your child, understand and explore.

- Know the law, the law is your child's lifeblood.

- If you want something for your child ask, if you don't ask they don't necessarily get.

- Don't take anything for granted, not the school, not the law, not your doctors advice and not your finances. Secure everything. Stay on top of everything. 

But above all, be BRAVE. That is the thing I regret the most. I regret that I was not a whole lot braver a whole lot earlier. I regret that it took me into my forties to learn how to fight dirty, when needed, on behalf of my children.

I do have to say though, I must have taught the boys how to stand up for themselves. The other day we were in a parking lot and a young mother with several little ones were crossing the parking lot just as I was puling out of my parking-space. I did not see her or her children. You know it happens. It's why when you are in a parking-lot, especially with younglings, you pay attention to what is happening around you and quite frankly you hold their hands as well. Now this brilliant mother also for some reason did not think to stop walking when she saw my car moving. What she did think to do is yell at me.

I again went into my mode of well, you never know who the idiot is so I apologized. I also figured she probably scared herself silly and needed to blame someone else for not watching her children in a parking lot, afterall it must have been the nannies day off. (You have no idea how entitled so many young people are in this town. It is amazing just how hard it is to raise their own offspring for some people.) But this moron did not stop yelling when I said I was sorry, "that I didn't see her or her children," she continued being nasty. "Well you should be, " she responded (classless cow). Then CM1 piped in from the back seat:

"She said she didn't see you and your children... and she said she was sorry..."

At that point I just rolled up my window and pulled away. More concerned that the bitch would start in on him than anything else. That probably would have been the point where I would have ended up outside of the car and it would have gone down hill from there.

I turned to CM1 and thanked him for defending me. I also told him, sometimes you can't fix stupid and sometimes it wasn't even worth trying. I am not sure if he understood my point about "stupid" but I know that he was my white knight and my hero, at that moment.

At least, I know that I did one thing right in all my oldest, who was diagnosed with PDD-NOS at 5 years old,  stood up for me in public against a stranger whom he realized was being an ass. I think we raised them strong. I think we raised them brave. I think we raised them able to tackle the meanies of the world. I know we raised both boys brave to the point that they know they need to deal with the world on the world's terms not theirs. Yet to see them able to stand up for themselves and those they love well, that was something I had hoped for but in the scheme of what they had to overcome and learn, I never thought of it as more than a passing fantasy. Yes CM2 was quite his brother's protector when very young, and at present they do vacillate between love and hate for each other just like typical siblings. But for all that I know I could have done better, I know that I did teach them about family, love and respect. Not bad for several decades worth of work after all I guess.

Until next time,


Talking about Glee On Special Needs Talk Radio

I am the host of a new show on blogtalk radio called Raising ASD Kids and Teens. It is part of a group of wonderful shows through Special Needs Talk Radio. SNTR is a spinoff of the on-line twitter based support group The Coffee Klatch.

My latest show featured Sharon DaVanport,  a director of Autism Women's Network, who is herself an  aspergean, parenting children on the autism spectrum. And Beth Arky of UCLA's Child Mind Institute, a veteran journalist who wrote about the controversy surrounding Glee, Sugar and the depiction of aspergers We had a frank and interesting discussion. Listen in...

Listen to internet radio with SpecialNeedsTalkRadio on Blog Talk Radio

Until next time,


Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Balagan and Bullying

Definition: Balagan- chaos, upended reality, fiasco, hullabaloo on steroids.

I have to tell everyone that I write this blog for several reason. One of course is that I hope other parents read what I write and are able to use some of the information that I have learned about raising children on the autism spectrum. But I also write to let off steam. If something bothers me instead of keeping it inside, I blog. I figure its alot healthier than developing an ulcer or walking around really grumpy. Generally it works out quite well.

So there I sat and wrote my little blog post about Glee and how I was none too pleased with the Sugar character. I tweeted it like I do all my posts, hoping that someone would stop by and leave a comment and even begin a little discussion. Well who would have thought that after writing this blog for several years, the post that would have caught fire was the one about Sugar. (Its the post before last so I won't link to it).

All of a sudden I am getting hundreds upon hundreds of hits. Now I generally wouldn't mind the attention except this was not the attention you look for. Since I was able to track back the hits I took a look where everyone was coming from. On some forums and even some blogs, I am quoted by some rather disgruntled individuals. Their choice of language would make a sailor blush. It's not like I haven't been called names before. Demanding the proper services for your children gets you called all kind of names particularly by your neighbors. Also, considering the names some politically-conservative women are freely called in the mass media, I should not have been surprised that there are people in this world who think they can freely use these vile terms, but really society, over a television show?

My questions are simple: Who is raising these children to use such language and think they are entitled to use such language? Does noone teach these young people manners or even the proper use of the English language (most of the grammar was appalling)? Do these children not have school work and if they are young adults, which is the general notion I took from the blogs and forums, do they not have jobs or any responsibilities at all? At their age I would not have had time to mess around on the Internet. I had things to do and goals to accomplish.

Heavens to Betsy. Did you know that you are NOT allowed to NOT like Glee. And everything the writers and producers do on that show is golden. Apparently I have angered some GLEE gods somewhere on the Internet and they have decided to declare war on me and my blog. I actually had to disable the anonymous filter for my blog because while these individuals can call you names, they never think what they say is important enough to lend a name to their nastiness. Now that took care of alot of the nastier comments. But still...really children get a life. This country has real problems. Get out of the house. Go work at a food bank or soup kitchen. Go volunteer at a pediatric cancer ward. Grow up for heavens sake.

I have to tell everyone that I generally don't get surprised by too much. Having dealt with the boys and their issues it never surprises me when they come up against some nasty people or some kind of roadblock. I always tell them to be careful when they go on line to You Tube because there are trolls out there in the blogosphere. What I never expected was to have to deal with trolls myself and definitely not to the extent that I faced over the weekend. Well not here on this blog anyway. On the political blog I write I had expected it because, well its politics. But nope never happened there either. I did by happenstance get a poem telling me to deal with the real world recently on one of my political posts, but it was innocuous and not particularly threatening. Not really all that good poetry either even though I know the commentor tried. (By the way, also written anonymously).

Honestly I have yet to figure out what the balagan was all about.  I didn't like the character and how she was portrayed. I thought Glee missed the mark. Hello, US of A, people are entitled to their opinion. The problem I see is that there are some of the younger generation who think that being nasty is just fine and dandy. That someone trolling and harassing another person on line is fine and dandy. That CYBERBULLYING is fine and dandy.

It's really interesting because I always talk to parents about how to help their children avoid cyberbullies. Just never thought that I would have to deal with it for me. It won't stop me from telling it as I see it, especially how aspergeans or autistics are portrayed on television and mass media. However, there is a truly perplexing underlying issue at hand. The problem that I see in this entire episode is that there is a huge part of the next generation of young people out there who think they are entitled to be as nasty and vile as they want because there are no repercussions. Honestly, I do not think  this bodes well for the future by any means.

Before there used to be consequences for inappropriate behavior, not anymore. Society does need to find a way to deal with this "I can be as mean as I want mentality" before it really becomes the way of the world and a totally accepted part of a generation. I don't think we are there yet, but am not sure we are too far from just throwing up our hands and saying..."oh well." We, the older generation, are responsible for the future we hand to our children. Its not only about high taxes, unfunded social programs and runaway debt. It's also about social interaction and behavior. This Internet version of Lord of the Flies is a wake up call and I hope that the powers that be really are paying attention and not just providing lip service.

I remember years ago I wrote a post about facebook and cyberbullying. Well, the reaction to that post was the same kind of ridiculousness that I had to deal with over this past weekend. But the telling thing that I found was that these young people who had left comments on the facebook post, besides thinking they can call me a "bitch," (little do they know that that is the least I have been called in my life and quite frankly I embrace the term whole heatedly) decided that the problem I had is that I do not get their sense of humor. I ask: how is being cruel funny? How is making fun of someone and belittling them funny? How is holding someone up to ridicule because of their ideas funny?

The sad thing is that I do not think this attitude is isolated. Statistics tell us that despite all the anti-bullying campaigns in the school systems and the anti-bullying rules in these same schools, bullying of all kinds is at epidemic proportions. Violent crime among the young is at an all time low according to the FBI, but I just think those who would otherwise be beating up a neighborhood child is on-line tormenting someone they don't even know. Perhaps in some ways it is better. That nerdy kid down the block (i.e. our children) could be left alone for awhile, but on-line bullying is still bullying and it still harms society as a whole.

No I don't have any answers, just a lot of concerns for the future. As I wrote in response to one of the nastier comments I had been left,  I do not think this bodes well for society. Instead of doing productive positive things, there are myriads of young people who spend their time trying to hurt someone else. These young people are not learning a trade, not concentrating on getting an education not being productive in any way shape or form. In the end it will be children like my boys who are trying to lead productive and positive lives who have to end up taking care of these societal leeches. These cyberbullying leeches do not feel they owe the world or society anything. It boggles, the mind. It really does.

Also one more thing...what the heck is ableism? Apparently I am an evil ableist. Someone with aspergers called me that the other day too on one of the Glee blogs. Since the portrayal of Sugar was stereotypically aspergean I was offended. But because I thought that Sugar was stereotypical I am an ableist...I guess this person never truly got the idea that there are stereotypes of aspergeans in society and they are not all positive ones. For every Sheldon and Max, there is a Sugar. I swear you can't make this crap up.

Apparently now because I think the boys and others like them, should act socially appropriate and I don't make excuses for them, or allow them to make excuses for themselves, but expect them to be viable members of society, I am evil. I expect the boys to act according to society's rules. Learn how to interact appropriately. Learn how to function at a job and at school like everyone else. You can't be nasty to people just because you have aspergers. Aspergers may make things harder to accomplish but that just means you have to try harder. It's the hand they were dealt. Again grow up and deal with the reality of your situation. Accept your responsibilities and your choices. Figure out your triggers and learn to help yourself. The world may give you accommodations (as in school) and access (as in school) but they do not have to give you a future if you don't earn it appropriately. You aren't entitled to a free pass in life because you have aspergers. According to this aspergean because of this I do more damage to the autistic community than any negative portrayal of an autistic individual in mass media ever could. Nope can't make this crap up. I guess Dr. Temple Grandin and I are evil ableists. Oh well.

Truthfully I have decided that some people can't take responsibility for their own lives, their actions and their poor choices. I suppose in the end I learned one thing. To expect the unexpected on the Internet. The post you think will make a splash wont and vice versa. You can't please everyone and some people are truly not playing with a full deck....

Until next time,


P.S. The first comment below defines Dr. Grandin as an autistic is not an ableist. But  accordingly, those of us who are neurotypical, even if we have autistic children, have no right to an opinion about anything having to do with autism. Who knew...well autistics who subscribe to that philosophy  are in for a shock and a half when they have to deal with me.

Thursday, September 22, 2011

It Happened, Glee Pissed Me Off

Update September 25: Alot of people seem to be reading this post. Pay attention to the comment caveats. Do not comment if you are going to be nasty. If you say nasty things knowing it will not be published then you are just being a troll. It is boring. Go do some charity work. Help out at a soup kitchen or at a food bank. This country has some real problems do something about it. Get out of your house and get a life.

Considering what a Gleek I happen to be I surprised myself that the season premiere of Glee angered me so much. Actually if you read the rest of this post you will understand why I was upset, it was just unexpected. It wasn't that the singing or dancing was less terrific. It wasn't that the story line is really any different as well. There was the usual teenage angst, turn to the darkside, need to discover yourself, backstabbing machinations found in high school but I thought it went over the top this time. Mr. Shuster standing up for himself and the Glee club was a long time coming but I really am tired of Sue Sylvester being a sociopath. (yes I understand that there are crazy teachers in highschool) And yes, I understand that Glee is over the top campy too. But there are some things that just aren't funny.

I suppose what set me off is the rude portrayal of the student with aspergers. There was a student who came into the Glee club tryouts with aspergers, thinking she was the greatest singer of all time but who in reality just couldn't sing at all. This of course is not an unusual manifestation of aspergers as any of us parents could tell the Glee writers. There have been times over the years that both boys would think that they were doing something so amazingly that they could be the best in the world. An unrealistic perspective about one's talents is part and parcel of this disability. They could think they are more capable then they are, or quite frankly, as with most cases, think they are less capable then they truly are simply because there are so many basic daily realities that they face that are so hard to accomplish and understand.

I have to tell you that the issue we generally have had over the years is the boys thinking they couldn't do something when they could.  CM2 would immediately shutdown when faced with a new concept or idea at school and CM1 would just dismiss anything out of hand that seemed overwhelming, like trying new social situations. Yes there were times when they were much younger that they had unrealistic perspectives, for example when they were learning to play tennis and finally hit the ball over the net and would announce that they were headed for a professional career in tennis and meant it, but that was a long time ago. On the other hand, I would have to say that neither really does like to loose at something they consider important in their lives. CM1 doesn't like bad grades (anything below an "A" or a "B+" is bad to him) and CM2 does think he knows everything about every video game. Yet these are issues we can work with and we can help them channel these idiosyncrasies into making positive, productive life choices.

The issue I have with  Glee, which has prided itself on the positive role model it shows for gay and lesbian students (or basically any student who has felt themselves isolated and alienated) and the issues they encounter in high school, turned the aspergers student into a laughing stock. Instead of trying to be understanding towards the aspergean and to figure out this student, they showed the Glee members frowning, smirking and laughing at  her including the all understanding Glee Club teacher. They also showed that the aspergean was able to get away with inappropriate behavior and was generally just a spoiled brat with no manners and a huge sense of entitlement.

There was no discussion of issues. There was no discussion of what this student faced on a daily basis. There was just open ridicule and false stereotypical rendition of those on the autism spectrum. Considering that most students with aspergers and autism spectrum disorders end up bullied and abused by their classmates it was a horrible thing that Glee did. Instead of lending support they have now told all the tweens and teens that watch their show that it is OK to make fun of and abuse our children.

Shame on Glee. The next time a child on the autism spectrum is bullied, harassed or beaten up, the writers of Glee can blame themselves for adding to the hostile environment that so many of our children face. So much for understanding and acceptance. You can bet I won't be watching Glee anymore, until and unless the autism community gets an apology, or Glee finds a way to let everyone know that aspergean issues will be handled well, and respectfully, in the upcoming season.

Until next time,


Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Reprise: Don't Yell Just Embrace Your Inner Bitch; Dealing with Bullying and IEPs

This morning on our tweetchat we discussed how to help your child deal with the "mean" middle school kids. It reminded me of the article reposted after the italic break below. The chat reminded me of this article because you need to know how to prepare you and your child for middle school It is a methodical, logical process fraught with alot of pent up emotion and lets face it, real anxiety.

Middle school is a big step. I won't lie to you. It was hard. But it is hard for everyone, not just special needs children. The hormonal changes and brain imbalance that goes on in the average adolescence would probably kill an two-ton elephant. Luckily it only makes our children less desirable to be around at times.

Now the trick to a successful time in middle school is making sure that everything is ready:

1. Make sure all the proper supports are in  place; alternate location for tests; use of a computer; extended time on tests; note taker and or access to teacher notes; breaks if needed during class time and on tests; questions reread and explained on tests; homework accommodations leading up to learning how to handle a full course load; resource room/ study skills class; para; special education support; psychological/guidance/social worker support; placement of desk in a classroom; OT accommodations in a classroom; speech accommodations; pre-teaching for a topic or a science lab.

2. Not just typical accommodations are warranted, maybe they need guidance counseling sessions (group sessions with other children), social worker sessions (group sessions with other children) or what passes for circle of friends in middle school. They can also set up a lunch buddy program for your child if they have noone to eat with. Don't let the schools tell you that it can't be done. It was done for both of my boys in their middle school. The idea is that they will have a ready made group of people who are their "friends." Those with "friends" are less likely to be bullied.

3. Also if they have regular contact with a guidance counselor, social worker or special ed teacher they will have a safe person to go to if there is a problem with another child during the day.

4. Learn what your districts bullying and zero-tolerance policies happen to be. So many of these regulations are overbroad and unconstitutional, i.e. they punish a child who is defending themselves from being beaten up, or if your child verbally retorts to an insult, some districts give the victims detention too.

5. Make sure it is in your child's IEP that if there is any issue with another student everyone will be called. Some districts do not call the parents if a child is being bullied. In fact with CM1 when he was bullied in middle school the bullies' parents never got a phone call, but I did. To this day these parents do not know how their children harassed my son. IMPORTANT: do NOT confront these parents on your own. Most parents will not take kindly to you telling them that their child is a little shit. Demand that the school call and confront the parents. It is their job.

6.. Know your school state law when it comes to how the district is to protect your child from bullies and what they are legally obligated to do. It does vary from state to state. Hire a lawyer if you need to inorder to enforce your child's rights if the school does not protect them.

7. If there is a bullying situation that is not getting resolved, go to the local youth officer and see under what circumstances they will intervene.One school district near our home, actually called social services on the bullies and their parents becasue they would not stop harassing another student and that student was staying home from school because of how bad the bullying was becoming. The bullies parents all of them, refused to intervene in the "social problems of children."

8. Keep your child OFF social media. Cyberbullying is a big issue in middle school. It is an issue because most of it continues after school and then there is no safe haven for your child even in their own home. Best not to even start with social media until they are much much much older. Bullying in "real life" at school is enough for any one child to have to deal with, don't add another dimension of possible problems. P.S. neither of my boys even had their own email until college and neither boy had any kind of social media account until college. To this day they only have You Tube accounts and we still watch their comment threads. (Over protective, yeah sure, but when you have children with social disabilities you need to be hyper vigilant in a social world, especially the unregulated world of the internet. Heck you should be vigilant on social media even if your child doesn't have special needs.)

9. Most importantly too, make sure that your child knows without question that they can always come to YOU, no matter the situation, no matter what has transpired. YOU are their shield against the world and it is YOU who will do battle for them if need be right now. They will need to learn how to handle adult bullies when they get older, but that is something learned overtime and something that everyone needs to grow into to. It, as with everything, is not learned overnight and it takes almost a lifetime in figuring out how to handle the "creeps" in the room. I always tell the boys that you have to learn how to deal with these kinds of jerks. No matter where you go there will always be an "asshole"...the trick is to learn social skill so that you don't end up being the "asshole."

10. Be aware that alot of districts like to try to blame the special needs child right off the bat if there is an issue. They claim that the special needs child either started it by mistake or misunderstood the situation because of their disability. Don't let the district get away with that. It is them passing the buck onto your child instead of doing their job.

Lastly, but not least....there may actually not really ever be any issues to talk about as far as your child and bullying. While CM1 was bullied terribly in middle school and alienated into highschool, that never happened to CM2. In fact the students in CM2's year took it as their obligation to make sure that he was protected and welcomed into the school. He may not have been invited to tons of parties through high school, but he felt liked, secure and wanted in school. That is all anyone really wants for their child, and it can happen. It truly depends on the student body.

Listen, my boys are only three years apart. Went to the same schools throughout their education but had totally different experiences as far as the other students are concerned. It just proves the point that it is how a child is raised. Not the ethnic, religious, or economic background of a person that makes the difference, but whether they are raised by descent parents or are dragged-up by lowlifes.

Meanwhile here is one of my favorite past articles...remember everything in the article goes for protecting your child from bullies as well as making sure that they get every support they are entitled to under law.

We have all heard the stories. That mother who screams and yells at their child’s IEP meeting. The one who every professional talks about, that ”crazy” mother who just won’t listen when they talk about her child. Yeah, that “crazy” mother, who they delegitimize because she got frustrated and yelled at them. You know the one that thinks she knows better than them about her child. I have talked about the condescension of the professionals, it is a pet peeve of mine. Personally there are times I think that some of us would probably like to punch out these professionals so they are lucky if all we do is yell, but I digress. So what do you do though if you are faced with a problematic situation? How to do you channel your frustrations? How do you get for your child what they need? I call it embracing your “inner bitch.”

Throughout our lives we have been taught to be nice. To play nice. To talk nice. To be pleasant and friendly. It wasn’t until I was in my forties that I learned a good lesson. Who cares what others think? You need to do what you need to do for yours. That is what I call “embracing your inner bitch.” Now I had always had that attitude, you might say, because the people in my little hamlet were none too happy when collegeman came in district and I didn’t care, but I learned to have that attitude with the professionals too, on the rare occasion that it was necessary.

Now this is a good thing. You use your frustration and your anger to embrace what you are going to need to do, but you do it in a way that is calm, intelligent and very thought-out. You leave the yelling and the kvetching and the breakdowns for home, facebook or twitter (as long as someone from your district isn’t following you on social media). So the question becomes how do you get what the children need without throwing a fit?

To start with, come in prepared-very prepared. Read the law books available from different law sites. I like Wrightslaw. Their books are succinct and to the point. They guide you through the process with wonderful examples. I also like their website. There is a lot of information available. Also go to your state education department, they should have guidelines for special education accommodations. In fact, in my state there is even a special section on autism. Check the federal government’s website. Remember an IEP is based on the Individual with Disabilities Education Act and a 504 plan is based on the Americans with Disabilities Act. Make sure you are well versed. Learn the lingo. Learn the difference in the two laws and how they apply to your children.

Next, get the medical information in order. Make sure you have a diagnosis letter with you and a letter outlining the supports the doctor recommends. Now this is not a guarantee but it is a good place to start. The schools do not have to take the recommendation into consideration, but it is good to come armed with something that shows you are serious. It is also good to have this information if you decide to go to a due process hearing. The school will know you are not coming alone and that you have back-up. (Doesn’t always work, but at least the school is on notice). If you had outside testing done, in addition to the testing done by the school, make sure that is with you too, and that it has been sent into the school before hand. Don’t let them use the excuse that they haven’t seen the testing, to delay helping your child. If you can work it out, it helps that the doctor or psychologist is there at the meeting or at the least the committee should call the outside doctor during the meeting. Even if they say it’s not necessary. I would insist strongly. (This is why the state regulations are very important to understand)

The next thing to know is what services are available in your school district. Your child is entitled to a free and appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment (LRE) in which they are making academic progress. This does not mean that they are getting As. Children get promoted to the next grade who get Cs as well. Also if they can function in a mainstream environment with support, like an aide, then they should be in the mainstream. That would be the LRE. However, if your child still cannot learn and still has meltdowns and still cannot function in a mainstream setting then it might be wise to seek some specialized program for them. Now you must, with a BIG MUST, understand the programs available in your state.

Here, in NY, the Education department has to certify any program. You are obligated to try to keep the child in state. We are very close to two other states with programs, so I am not talking residential placement, but for that you have to look instate as well first. Get a list of the appropriate programs and talk to the directors; go see the programs with and without your child. The school is also supposed to go view the programs. There is an application process that the school has to abide by for each school. Make sure that they do, request to be copied on all paperwork. In fact see if they will give you copies of the applications. Call the programs to make sure that everything is being sent the way it is supposed to. To quote Ronald Reagan, “Trust but verify.”

The last step is to prepare the IEP to fit the program that the child is entering. Make sure that the goals are realistic and that there is also some growth allowed too. Don’t let them make everything too easy. If the child reaches their goal, they don’t need services anymore, right? There should also not just be educational goals, but social and emotional goals as well and very very important, EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING goals. These executive functioning issues are the bĂȘte noir of our children’s existence, I have remarked on that several times in the past. It sounds simple, but if the children don’t learn how to organize, and process for themselves, they will be lost in their lives.

So these are just a few things to remember in preparing for that IEP meeting. You don’t have to yell. You don’t have to threaten. You don’t have to knuckle under. What you do is learn, organize, and collaborate with those who work with your child. Unfortunately if all else fails sometimes we do have to go the route of hiring a lawyer. It is not pleasant, but it may be necessary. Hopefully for all of you it will never come to that. It didn’t for us, because I followed the above rules.

So put aside that societal contretemps of being the nice girl, whom everyone has to like. The one who has to please those around her to validate her self-worth. Use your intellect. Use your strength. Use your ability. Use your wisdom. Use your power. Embracing your “inner bitch” is a good thing. And if necessary you make sure they learn what the word “BITCH” really means.

Until next time,


P.S. If anyone can think of anything else parents should do to make sure their child has the support they need and the ability to handle bullying in middle school and beyond add it in the comments. Let's share our knowledge and support each other.

Friday, September 16, 2011

Boundaries, Obligations and Happiness

Someone asked me how my boys were doing the other day. It's interesting because I always hesitate to say they are doing well. It seems that everytime I do that some huge meteor appears in the nightsky presaging the beginning of a period of doom. So I simply answered her "At this moment, at this time, in this second of my reality, everything is OK." She actually laughed because she understood exactly what I was talking about.

No she is not the parent of a special needs child, she is just a mother, wife, daughter and citizen of the world. When you are alive you have problems. She has an elderly parent living at home with her and her husband. Her husband's elderly parents (both with medical issues) live down the street and her son just got flooded out in the huge hurricane. He and his girlfriend now live in her basement. She also just went through major back surgery. It's called life. There is always something, no matter who you are.

It's why I never really understood people who have to create problems for themselves. Doesn't life just give you enough to handle on its own? Why are there people who have to cheat, steal, lie and break every commandment? Is life not spicy enough for them? What more do they need? Are they so bereft of  values and morals that nothing makes them happy? You can't claim poverty or single parenting for every ill in the world. In fact some of the most unhappy people I know have more material goods and disposable income than anyone else on the planet (these people I really can't understand). Of course I would like the opportunity to test the hypothesis that "money can't buy happiness." I would write a great scientific paper on the subject, worthy of a Nobel Prize, and let everyone in on my findings.

No this is not a religious tirade. We are not particularly a religious family, albeit a culturally Jewish one. We do have a strong sense of our history coupled with understanding rights and wrongs and ethics and moral value. We know what a person is supposed to do by law and what a person is required to do to be a good person. Interestingly, they are not always one in the same.

You might be surprised just how lacking in moral fiber our legal code actually happens to be (I am not talking about some of the inherent racist or economic disparities within our legal system, but the laws itself.). The fact that our legislatures had to pass "Good Samaritan" laws to protect those who would come to anothers rescue from legal imprisonment or a civil lawsuit, should in and of itself say something about our society.

But it is even more than that. There is "something rotten in Denmark." People are angry, so very angry. When the world that you have built over decades comes crashing down around you you need to lash out and you need to blame someone. It almost seems like noone takes any responsibility for their mistakes anymore.  No one from the top down can say "the buck stops here." It's always someone else's fault. It's easier to scapegoat someone rather than except that you or your perspectives could be wrong.

I think this goes back to the class that CM2 is taking on prejudice. He is learning how society scapegoats others to find a reason to not take blame for their own poor choices. He is studying the rights and wrongs of the world and how they go belly up so often. It's been part and parcel of CM1's existence for years now and unfortunately it only makes him angry when he thinks about it. Luckily CM2 hasn't become angry, not yet, but his way of dealing with the dichotomy of societal reality is to be a very cynical 17 year old.

You used to find such cynicism in older folks, like me, but it is a huge aspect of the way CM2 deals with the present situation. It is a loss of innocence and in many ways I resent that the world has done that to him. But then again he never blames others for his mistakes. He accepts responsibility and he knows what is expected of him. He just doesn't understand why others, especially those in power, don't feel obligated to adhere to the same ethical and moral rules bywhich he has to abide.

Whose fault is it when things do not go as planned? Whose fault is it when people don't agree with you and kowtow to your perspectives and thought processes? Whose fault is it when life takes a huge bite out of your future and sets you on a tailspin? Whose fault is it if you don't pull yourself together and fix your problems? Once again our elected officials exemplified the inadequate in our society. A Jewish California Congressman just blamed the democratic loss in New York 9 on "Jews who were only interested in keeping their own wealth..." I kid you not. While the head of the DNC said that the Orthodox Jewish community of NY9 are a fringe element not really part of American-Jewry.  It makes your head spin. No real need to wonder why CM2 is so cynical.

I suppose the issue becomes what kind of world do you want to live in? Do you want to live in a world where there are no boundaries and everyone does just what they want? Or do you want to live in a world where there are expectations and requirements? According to a recent poll, those who have a moral code and  are permitted to ask questions about that code, and the world around them, are the most content people in the world (OK yes the poll did say that Jewish people are the happiest, with atheists coming in second. Since we are Jewish, with CM1's atheism thrown in, I confess the poll made me happy). Understanding what is expected of a person brings happiness, especially when you fulfill that obligation. Knowing boundaries helps society to flourish and to grow. The ability to question authority also allows for growth and development as a person and as a society.

I suppose that is why my friend with all going on in her life is well, quite happy. She understands the world around her and is fulfilling her obligations. The boys are happy, at this moment, at this time, in this second of their reality because they understand their obligations and are fulfilling them. I am happy because as the old saying goes you are only as happy as your least happy child.

Though I'll let you know when I see a meteor streaking through the nightsky.....

Until next time,


UPDATE: So the damn meteor appeared in the nightsky....

While picking up CM2 from school I received a call from CM1. He had just had a seizure, ended up on the floor and hit his head.  I stayed on the phone with him for awhile and periodically called while on my mommy-taxi trip to make sure he remained lucid. I then took CM1 directly to the ER once I got home.  After three hours of blood tests and catscans (everything showed that he was fine) he was released with a caveat that if he was feeling poorly he should call his doctor right away. But that he needs to follow up with his neurologist.

It is always something isn't it?

Monday, September 12, 2011

Rosh Hashana With a Groove..Add to the List

I have decided to start a  compilation of Rosh Hashana videos...I will keep adding to the list as I find them...or send me a heads up...

Meanwhile enjoy these and of course SHANAH TOVA

This one is definitely the cutest video..check out what the boy in the video dips in the honey...

Yeah those Yeshiva boys are bustin' a move through the Old City of Jerusalem.

Until next time,


Teaching About Prejudice

As I have mentioned before CM1 is majoring in history and Holocaust studies at his college. This was always to be expected. He has always been an empathetic and caring human being. When he studied genocide during high school, it truly put him into overdrive to learn basically what causes such ignorance and evil.

The surprising thing that has happened though is that CM2 seems to be following in his brother's footsteps. While he is hell-bent on majoring in computer science, he also seems to be befuddled by hate. CM2 never could tolerate cruelty and evil but I truly never thought he would allow himself to be so challenged. This semester he is taking two courses, one called The Power of Prejudice and the other called Fathoming Genocide. I am truly proud of him for picking these classes.

Neither youngman understands when others are mean, cruel and abusive. They have a huge need to understand hate and why it is so important to some people. Tell me again how autistics are not supposed to think beyond themselves....

CM2's para told me that on the first day of his Prejudice class all the students had to tell something about their ethnic and racial background. CM2 was a little put off because in a class of almost twenty students he was the only Jewish student. Living in a rather homogeneous community that was in and of itself eye opening for him. I suppose it never really dawned on him that in a world of over 6 billion people there are only 14 million Jews world-wide (you would also never know it from the news that Jews comprise less than 1% of the world's total population. Here is also something that the boys will have to face.) There are students from almost every continent and economic sphere. He will learn perspectives from around the world and some from right here in this country. The para was concerned that it might be a little free flowing for him, not enough structure. But I told him he needs that class. It will help him understand what the world is truly about. He doesn't have to agree with every perspective he hears, but he needs to hear them and not be afraid of them.

Interestingly the first pairing that they did in that class, was to have a partner tell something about you...CM2's partner just ended up being a Palestinian-American youngwoman. The para said you should have seen both their faces when they were put together. It was actually not done on purpose. They happened to be sitting next to each other and the professor just went round the table assigning the person sitting next to you to be your partner. Well they survived, the both of them. The Professor pointed out at the end, that sometimes there are messages in life and that things work out in ways you least expect. That maybe people need to understand that to solve our problems the only way is to talk to each other. A little world lesson on day one...yep I think this is going to be a very good year for CM2. Not necessarily an easy year, but a very good year.

Meanwhile to help CM2 with his first assignment, Wise Old Sage found a terrific website that teaches children about the different kinds of prejudices and forms of hate. It's from the group International Kids Club...I highly recommend it to anyone who wishes to teach tolerance and understanding to their child. This is a great place to start.

Click HERE to go to the site.

Following is a list of "intolerances" from the International Kid's Club. What can you and your child come up with in order to fight these prejudices.

Form of prejudice: Due to Differences of: Examples of types: ( *see note below! )
skin color white, black, yellow etc.

race Caucasian, Asian, Arab etc.

religion Moslem, Christian, Hindu, etc.

culture Asian, American etc.

language, dialect Any language, dialect, accent.

dress Sari, Jaleba, Kimono, Head Scarf, Turban, etc.

country origin Any Country
Classism economic class poor or rich

intellectual class college degree, blue collar, white collar, etc.

social class social group , interests, activities, sport, etc.
Sexism sex and gender male, female, girls, women, boys, men

sexual or gender orientation heterosexual, homosexual
Lookism appearance and looks attractive, unattractive, facial, body features, etc.
Ableism physical and mental ability differently abled, strengths , weaknesses, intelligence ,etc.
Ageism age adults, youths, elderly, etc.

*NOTE: In no way does it suggest that you or anyone you know are or should be prejudice against any "TYPE" listed! "TYPES" are listed only to illustrate example of possible "DIFFERENCES" in column 2.

The website has some interesting ideas that helps explain these forms of human ignorance to your child. Leave comments below to let everyone know what you and your child have come up with. The best way to fight prejudice is to share our arsenal on how to battle against it.

But remember everything is just your opinion. Everyone doesn't have to agree with you nor adhere to your perspective. Back up ideas with real facts too. Opinions based on erroneous facts are meaningless. Also don't comment if you can't handle being challenged.

Until next time,


Saturday, September 10, 2011

September 11, 2011 Ten Years Later...Requiescat in Pace

I blogged this a little early, so it would be up in time before the ringing of the bells...

American Airlines Flight 11, 8:46 a.m. hits North Tower.
United Airlines Flight 175, 9:03 a.m. hits South Tower.
American Airlines Flight 77, 9:37 a.m. hits Pentagon.
United Airlines Airlines Flight 93, 10:03 a.m. crashes in Pennsylvania

Those that perished:

Anna Williams Allison • David Lawrence Angell • Lynn Edwards Angell • Seima Aoyama • Barbara Jean Ares Tegui • Myra Joy Aronson • Christine Barbuto • Carolyn Mayer Beug • Kelly Ann Booms • Carol Marie Bouchard • Neilie Anne Heffernan Casey • Jeffrey Dwayne Collman • Jeffrey W. Coombs • Tara Kathleen Creamer • Thelma Cuccinello • Patrick Currivan • Brian P. Dale • David DiMeglio • Donald Americo DiTullio • Alberto Dominguez • Paige Farley-Hackel • Alexander Milan Filipov • Carol Flyzik • Paul Friedman • Karleton D.B. Fyfe • Peter Alan Gay • Linda M. George • Edmund Glazer • Lisa Reinhart Fenn Gordenstein • Andrew Peter Charles Curry Green • Peter Paul Hashem • Robert Jay Hayes • Edward (Ted) R. Hennessy • John A. Hofer • Cora Hidalgo Holland • John Nicholas Humber • Waleed Iskandar • John Charles Jenkins • Charles Edward Jones • Robin Kaplan • Barbara Keating • David Kovalcin • Judy Larocque • Natalie Janis Lasden • Daniel John Lee • Daniel C. Lewin • Sara Elizabeth Low • Susan A. MacKay • Karen A. Martin • Thomas F. McGuinness • Christopher D. Mello • Jeffrey Peter Mladenik • Antonio Jesus Montoya Valdes • Carlos Alberto Montoya • Laura Lee Morabito • Mildred Naiman • Laurie Ann Neira • Renee Lucille Newell • Kathleen Ann Nicosia • Jacqueline J. Norton • Robert Grant Norton • John Ogonowski • Betty Ann Ong • Jane M. Orth • Thomas Nicholas Pecorelli • Berinthia Berenson Perkins • Sonia Morales Puopolo • David E. Retik • Jean Destrehan Roger • Philip M. Rosenzweig • Richard Barry Ross • Jessica Leigh Sachs • Rahma Salie • Heather Lee Smith • Dianne Bullis Snyder • Douglas J. Stone • Xavier Suarez • Madeline Amy Sweeney • Michael Theodoridis • James Anthony Trentini • Mary Barbara Trentini • Pendyala Vamsikrishna • Mary Alice Wahlstrom • Kenneth E. Waldie • John Wenckus • Candace Lee Williams • Christopher Rudolph Zarba

Alona Avraham • Garnet Edward (Ace) Bailey • Mark Lawrence Bavis • Graham Andrew Berkeley • Touri Bolourchi • Klaus Bothe • Daniel R. Brandhorst • David Reed Gamboa Brandhorst • John Brett Cahill • Christoffer Mikael Carstanjen • John (Jay) J. Corcoran • Ana Gloria Pocasangre de Barrera • Dorothy Alma DeAraujo • Robert John Fangman • Lisa Frost • Ronald Gamboa • Lynn Catherine Goodchild • Peter Morgan Goodrich • Douglas A. Gowell • Francis E. Grogan • Carl Max Hammond • Christine Lee Hanson • Peter Hanson • Gerald F. Hardacre • Eric Samadikan Hartono • James E. Hayden • Herbert W. Homer • Michael R. Horrocks • Robert Adrien Jalbert • Amy N. Jarret • Ralph Francis Kershaw • Sue Jue Kim-Hanson • Heinrich Kimmig • Amy R. King • Brian Kinney • Kathryn L. LaBorie • Robert George LeBlanc • Maclovio Lopez • Marianne MacFarlane • Alfred Gilles Padre Joseph Marchand • Louis Neil Mariani • Juliana Valentine McCourt • Ruth Magdaline McCourt • Wolfgang Peter Menzel • Shawn M. Nassaney • Marie Pappalardo • Patrick J. Quigley • Frederick Charles Rimmele • James M. Roux • Jesus Sanchez • Victor J. Saracini • Mary Kathleen Shearer • Robert Michael Shearer • Jane Louise Simpkin • Brian D. Sweeney • Michael C. Tarrou • Alicia Nicole Titus • Timothy Ray Ward • William M. Weems


Gordon McCannel Aamoth • Edelmiro (Ed) Abad • Maria Rose Abad • Andrew Anthony Abate • Vincent Abate • Laurence Christopher Abel • William F. Abrahamson • Richard Anthony Aceto • Alicia Acevedo Carranza • Heinrich B. Ackermann • Paul Andrew Acquaviva • Donald L. Adams • Patrick Adams • Shannon Lewis Adams • Stephen Adams • Ignatius Adanga • Christy A. Addamo • Terence E. Adderley • Sophia B. Addo • Lee Adler • Daniel Thomas Afflitto • Emmanuel Afuakwah • Alok Agarwal • Mukul Agarwala • Joseph Agnello • David Scott Agnes • Joao A.D. Aguiar • Brian G. Ahearn • Jeremiah J. Ahern • Joanne Ahladiotis • Shabbir Ahmed • Terrance Andre Aiken • Godwin Ajala • Gertrude M. Alagero • Andrew Alameno • Margaret Ann (Peggy) Jezycki Alario • Gary Albero • Jon L. Albert • Peter Craig Alderman • Jacquelyn Delaine Aldridge • Grace Alegre-Cua • David D. Alger • Boutros al-Hashim • Ernest Alikakos • Edward L. Allegretto • Eric Allen • Joseph Ryan Allen • Richard Dennis Allen • Richard Lanard Allen • Christopher Edward Allingham • Janet M. Alonso • Anthony Alvarado • Antonio Javier Alvarez • Telmo Alvear • Cesar A. Alviar • Tariq Amanullah • Angelo Amaranto • James Amato • Joseph Amatuccio • Christopher Charles Amoroso • Kazuhiro Anai • Calixto Anaya • Joseph Peter Anchundia • Kermit Charles Anderson • Yvette Anderson • John Andreacchio • Michael Rourke Andrews • Jean A. Andrucki • Siew-Nya Ang • Joseph Angelini • Joseph Angelini • Laura Angilletta • Doreen J. Angrisani • Lorraine D. Antigua • Peter Paul Apollo • Faustino Apostol • Frank Thomas Aquilino • Patrick Michael Aranyos • David Gregory Arce • Michael G. Arczynski • Louis Arena • Adam Arias • Michael J. Armstrong • Jack Charles Aron • Joshua Aron • Richard Avery Aronow • Japhet J. Aryee • Carl Asaro • Michael A. Asciak • Michael Edward Asher • Janice Ashley • Thomas J. Ashton • Manuel O. Asitimbay • Gregg Arthur Atlas • Gerald Atwood • James Audiffred • Louis Frank Aversano • Ezra Aviles • Samuel (Sandy) Ayala

Arlene T. Babakitis • Eustace (Rudy) Bacchus • John James Badagliacca • Jane Ellen Baeszler • Robert J. Baierwalter • Andrew J. Bailey • Brett T. Bailey • Tatyana Bakalinskaya • Michael S. Baksh • Sharon Balkcom • Michael Andrew Bane • Kathy Bantis • Gerard Jean Baptiste • Walter Baran • Gerard A. Barbara • Paul V. Barbaro • James W. Barbella • Ivan Kyrillos Fairbanks Barbosa • Victor Daniel Barbosa • Colleen Ann Barkow • David Michael Barkway • Matthew Barnes • Sheila Patricia Barnes • Evan J. Baron • Renee Barrett-Arjune • Arthur T. Barry • Diane G. Barry • Maurice Vincent Barry • Scott D. Bart • Carlton W. Bartels • Guy Barzvi • Inna Basina • Alysia Basmajian • Kenneth William Basnicki • Steven J. Bates • Paul James Battaglia • W. David Bauer • Ivhan Luis Carpio Bautista • Marlyn C. Bautista • Jasper Baxter • Michele (Du Berry) Beale • Paul F. Beatini • Jane S. Beatty • Larry I. Beck • Manette Marie Beckles • Carl John Bedigian • Michael Beekman • Maria Behr • Yelena Belilovsky • Nina Patrice Bell • Andrea Della Bella • Debbie S. Bellows • Stephen Elliot Belson • Paul Michael Benedetti • Denise Lenore Benedetto • Bryan Craig Bennett • Eric L. Bennett • Oliver Duncan Bennett • Margaret L. Benson • Dominick J. Berardi • James Patrick Berger • Steven Howard Berger • John P. Bergin • Alvin Bergsohn • Daniel D. Bergstein • Michael J. Berkeley • Donna Bernaerts-Kearns • Dave Bernard • William Bernstein • David M. Berray • David S. Berry • Joseph J. Berry • William Reed Bethke • Timothy D. Betterly • Edward F. Beyea • Paul Michael Beyer • Anil T. Bharvaney • Bella Bhukhan • Shimmy D. Biegeleisen • Peter Alexander Bielfeld • William Biggart • Brian Bilcher • Carl Vincent Bini • Gary Bird • Joshua David Birnbaum • George Bishop • Jeffrey D. Bittner • Balewa Albert Blackman • Christopher Joseph Blackwell • Susan L. Blair • Harry Blanding • Janice L. Blaney • Craig Michael Blass • Rita Blau • Richard M. Blood • Michael A. Boccardi • John Paul Bocchi • Michael L. Bocchino • Susan Mary Bochino • Bruce Douglas (Chappy) Boehm • Mary Katherine Boffa • Nicholas A. Bogdan • Darren C. Bohan • Lawrence Francis Boisseau • Vincent M. Boland • Alan Bondarenko • Andre Bonheur • Colin Arthur Bonnett • Frank Bonomo • Yvonne L. Bonomo • Sean Booker • Juan Jose Borda Leyva • Sherry Ann Bordeaux • Krystine C. Bordenabe • Martin Boryczewski • Richard E. Bosco • John Howard Boulton • Francisco Bourdier • Thomas H. Bowden • Kimberly S. Bowers • Veronique (Bonnie) Nicole Bowers • Larry Bowman • Shawn Edward Bowman • Kevin L. Bowser • Gary R. Box • Gennady Boyarsky • Pamela Boyce • Michael Boyle • Alfred Braca • Sandra Conaty Brace • Kevin H. Bracken • David Brian Brady • Alexander Braginsky • Nicholas W. Brandemarti • Michelle Renee Bratton • Patrice Braut • Lydia Estelle Bravo • Ronald Michael Breitweiser • Edward A. Brennan • Frank H. Brennan • Michael Emmett Brennan • Peter Brennan • Thomas M. Brennan • Daniel Brethel • Gary L. Bright • Jonathan Eric Briley • Mark A. Brisman • Paul Gary Bristow • Victoria Alvarez Brito • Mark Francis Broderick • Herman C. Broghammer • Keith Broomfield • Janice J. Brown • Lloyd Brown • Patrick J. Brown • Bettina Browne • Mark Bruce • Richard Bruehert • Andrew Brunn • Vincent Brunton • Ronald Paul Bucca • Brandon J. Buchanan • Greg Joseph Buck • Dennis Buckley • Nancy Bueche • Patrick Joseph Buhse • John E. Bulaga • Stephen Bunin • Matthew J. Burke • Thomas Daniel Burke • William F. Burke • Donald James Burns • Kathleen A. Burns • Keith James Burns • John Patrick Burnside • Irina Buslo • Milton Bustillo • Thomas M. Butler • Patrick Byrne • Timothy G. Byrne

Jesus Cabezas • Lillian Caceres • Brian Joseph Cachia • Steven Cafiero • Richard M. Caggiano • Cecile M. Caguicla • Michael John Cahill • Scott W. Cahill • Thomas J. Cahill • George Cain • Salvatore B. Calabro • Joseph Calandrillo • Philip V. Calcagno • Edward Calderon • Kenneth Marcus Caldwell • Dominick E. Calia • Felix (Bobby) Calixte • Frank Callahan • Liam Callahan • Luigi Calvi • Roko Camaj • Michael Cammarata • David Otey Campbell • Geoffrey Thomas Campbell • Jill Marie Campbell • Robert Arthur Campbell • Sandra Patricia Campbell • Juan Ortega Campos • Sean Canavan • John A. Candela • Vincent Cangelosi • Stephen J. Cangialosi • Lisa B. Cannava • Brian Cannizzaro • Michael R. Canty • Louis A. Caporicci • Jonathan N. Cappello • James Christopher Cappers • Richard M. Caproni • Jose Cardona • Dennis M Carey • Edward Carlino • Michael Scott Carlo • David G. Carlone • Rosemarie C. Carlson • Mark Stephen Carney • Joyce Ann Carpeneto • Jeremy M. Carrington • Michael T. Carroll • Peter Carroll • James J. Carson • Christopher Newton Carter • James Marcel Cartier • Vivian Casalduc • John F. Casazza • Paul Cascio • Margarito Casillas • Thomas Anthony Casoria • William Otto Caspar • Alejandro Castano • German Castillo Galicia • Arcelia Castillo • Leonard M. Castrianno • Jose Ramon Castro • Richard G. Catarelli • Christopher Sean Caton • Robert J. Caufield • Mary Teresa Caulfield • Judson Cavalier • Michael Joseph Cawley • Jason D. Cayne • Juan Armando Ceballos • Marcia G. Cecil-Carter • Jason Cefalu • Thomas J. Celic • Ana M. Centeno • Joni Cesta • Jeffrey M. Chairnoff • Swarna Chalasini • William Chalcoff • Eli Chalouh • Charles Lawrence (Chip) Chan • Mandy Chang • Mark L. Charette • Gregorio Manuel Chavez • Pedro Francisco Checo • Douglas MacMillan Cherry • Stephen Patrick Cherry • Vernon Paul Cherry • Nestor Chevalier • Swede Joseph Chevalier • Alexander H. Chiang • Dorothy J. Chiarchiaro • Luis Alfonso Chimbo • Robert Chin • Wing Wai (Eddie) Ching • Nicholas P. Chiofalo • John Chipura • Peter A. Chirchirillo • Catherine E. Chirls • Kyung (Kaccy) Cho • Abdul K. Chowdhury • Mohammed Salahuddin Chowdhury • Kirsten L. Christophe • Pamela Chu • Steven Paul Chucknick • Wai-ching Chung • Christopher Ciafardini • Alex F. Ciccone • Frances Ann Cilente • Elaine Cillo • Edna Cintron • Nestor Andre Cintron • Robert Dominick Cirri • Juan Pablo Alvarez Cisneros • Benjamin Keefe Clark • Eugene Clark • Gregory A. Clark • Mannie Leroy Clark • Thomas R. Clark • Christopher Robert Clarke • Donna Clarke • Michael Clarke • Suria R.E. Clarke • Kevin Francis Cleary • James D. Cleere • Geoffrey W. Cloud • Susan M. Clyne • Steven Coakley • Jeffrey Coale • Patricia A. Cody • Daniel Michael Coffey • Jason Matthew Coffey • Florence Cohen • Kevin Sanford Cohen • Anthony Joseph Coladonato • Mark J. Colaio • Stephen J. Colaio • Christopher M. Colasanti • Kevin Nathaniel Colbert • Michel Paris Colbert • Keith Eugene Coleman • Scott Thomas Coleman • Tarel Coleman • Liam Joseph Colhoun • Robert D. Colin • Robert J. Coll • Jean Marie Collin • John Michael Collins • Michael L. Collins • Thomas J. Collins • Joseph Collison • Patricia Malia Colodner • Linda M. Colon • Soledi Colon • Ronald Comer • Jaime Concepcion • Albert Conde • Denease Conley • Susan Clancy Conlon • Margaret Mary Conner • Cynthia L. Connolly • John E. Connolly • James Lee Connor • Jonathan (J.C.) Connors • Kevin P. Connors • Kevin Francis Conroy • Brenda E. Conway • Dennis Michael Cook • Helen D. Cook • John A. Cooper • Joseph J. Coppo • Gerard J. Coppola • Joseph Albert Corbett • Alejandro Cordero • Robert Cordice • Danny A. Correa-Gutierrez • Ruben D. Correa • James Corrigan • Carlos Cortes • Kevin M. Cosgrove • Dolores Marie Costa • Digna Alexandra Rivera Costanza • Charles Gregory Costello • Michael S. Costello • Conrod K.H. Cottoy • Martin Coughlan • John Gerard Coughlin • Timothy John Coughlin • James E. Cove • Andre Cox • Frederick John Cox • Michelle Coyle-Eulau • James Raymond Coyle • Anne M. Cramer • Christopher Seton Cramer • Denise Crant • James L. Crawford • Robert James Crawford • Joanne Mary Cregan • Lucia Crifasi • John Crisci • Daniel Hal Crisman • Dennis A. Cross • Helen Crossin-Kittle • Kevin Raymond Crotty • Thomas G. Crotty • John Crowe • Welles Remy Crowther • Robert L. Cruikshank • Francisco Cruz • John Robert Cruz • Kenneth John Cubas • Francisco C. Cubero • Richard Joseph Cudina • Neil James Cudmore • Thomas Patrick Cullen • Joan McConnell Cullinan • Joyce Cummings • Brian Thomas Cummins • Nilton Albuquerque Fernao Cunha • Michael Joseph Cunningham • Robert Curatolo • Laurence Curia • Paul Dario Curioli • Beverly Curry • Michael Curtin • Gavin Cushny

John D'Allara • Vincent D'Amadeo • Jack L. D'Ambrosi • Mary D'Antonio • Edward Alexander D'Atri • Michael D. D'Auria • Michael Jude D'Esposito • Manuel Da Mota • Carlos S. DaCosta • Caleb Arron Dack • Thomas A. Damaskinos • Jeannine Marie Damiani-Jones • Patrick W. Danahy • Nana Kwuku Danso • Vincent G. Danz • Dwight Donald Darcy • Elizabeth Ann Darling • Annette Andrea Dataram • Lawrence Davidson • Michael Allen Davidson • Scott Matthew Davidson • Titus Davidson • Niurka Davila • Clinton Davis • Wayne Terrial Davis • Anthony Richard Dawson • Calvin Dawson • Edward James Day • Jayceryll M. de Chavez • Emerita (Emy) De La Pena • Azucena de la Torre • Cristina de Laura • Oscar de Laura • Francis (Frank) Albert De Martini • Robert J. DeAngelis • James V. DeBlase • Paul DeCola • Jason Christopher DeFazio • Jennifer DeJesus • Monique E. DeJesus • Nereida DeJesus • Martin DeMeo • Jean C. DePalma • Michael DeRienzo • David Paul DeRubbio • Jemal Legesse DeSantis • Christian D. DeSimone • Edward DeSimone • Melanie Louise DeVere • Jerry DeVito • William T. Dean • Thomas P. Deangelis • Tara Debek • Anna Debin • Simon Dedvukaj • David A. Defeo • Manuel Del Valle • Donald A. Delapenha • Vito Joseph Deleo • Danielle Delie • Joseph A. Della Pietra • Palmina Delli Gatti • Colleen Ann Deloughery • Anthony Demas • Francis X. Deming • Carol K. Demitz • Kevin Dennis • Thomas F. Dennis • Jose Nicholas Depena • Robert J. Deraney • Andrew Desperito • Cindy Ann Deuel • Robert P. Devitt • Dennis Lawrence Devlin • Gerard Dewan • Simon Suleman Ali Kassamali Dhanani • Michael L. DiAgostino • Patricia F. DiChiaro • John DiFato • Vincent F. DiFazio • Carl DiFranco • Donald J. DiFranco • Debra Ann DiMartino • Anthony DiOnisio • George DiPasquale • Joseph DiPilato • Douglas Frank DiStefano • Michael Diaz-Piedra • Judith Belguese Diaz-Sierra • Lourdes Galletti Diaz • Matthew Diaz • Nancy Diaz • Obdulio Ruiz Diaz • Joseph Dermot Dickey • Lawrence Patrick Dickinson • Michael David Diehl • Stephen P. Dimino • William J. Dimmling • Christopher Dincuff • Jeffrey M. Dingle • Ramzi A. Doany • John J. Doherty • Melissa C. Doi • Brendan Dolan • Neil Dollard • James Joseph Domanico • Benilda Pascua Domingo • Charles (Carlos) Dominguez • Geronimo (Jerome) Mark Patrick Dominguez • Kevin W. Donnelly • Jacqueline Donovan • Stephen Dorf • Thomas Dowd • Kevin Christopher Dowdell • Mary Yolanda Dowling • Raymond M. Downey • Frank Joseph Doyle • Joseph M. Doyle • Randy Drake • Stephen Patrick Driscoll • Mirna A. Duarte • Luke A. Dudek • Christopher Michael Duffy • Gerard Duffy • Michael Joseph Duffy • Thomas W. Duffy • Antoinette Duger • Sareve Dukat • Christopher Joseph Dunne • Richard A. Dunstan • Patrick Thomas Dwyer

Joseph Anthony Eacobacci • John Bruce Eagleson • Robert D. Eaton • Dean P. Eberling • Margaret Ruth Echtermann • Paul Robert Eckna • Constantine (Gus) Economos • Dennis Michael Edwards • Michael Hardy Edwards • Christine Egan • Lisa Egan • Martin Egan • Michael Egan • Samantha Egan • Carole Eggert • Lisa Caren Weinstein Ehrlich • John Ernst (Jack) Eichler • Eric Adam Eisenberg • Daphne F. Elder • Michael J. Elferis • Mark J. Ellis • Valerie Silver Ellis • Albert Alfy William Elmarry • Edgar H. Emery • Doris Suk-Yuen Eng • Christopher S. Epps • Ulf Ramm Ericson • Erwin L. Erker • William J. Erwin • Sarah (Ali) Escarcega • Jose Espinal • Fanny M. Espinoza • Brigette Ann Esposito • Francis Esposito • Michael Esposito • William Esposito • Ruben Esquilin • Sadie Ette • Barbara G. Etzold • Eric Brian Evans • Robert Edward Evans • Meredith Emily June Ewart

Catherine K. Fagan • Patricia M. Fagan • Keith G. Fairben • William F. Fallon • William Fallon • Anthony J. Fallone • Dolores B. Fanelli • John Joseph Fanning • Kathleen (Kit) Faragher • Thomas Farino • Nancy Carole Farley • Elizabeth Ann (Betty) Farmer • Douglas Farnum • John G. Farrell • John W. Farrell • Terrence Patrick Farrell • Joseph Farrelly • Thomas P. Farrelly • Syed Abdul Fatha • Christopher Faughnan • Wendy R. Faulkner • Shannon M. Fava • Bernard D. Favuzza • Robert Fazio • Ronald C. Fazio • William Feehan • Francis J. (Frank) Feely • Garth E. Feeney • Sean B. Fegan • Lee S. Fehling • Peter Feidelberg • Alan D. Feinberg • Rosa Maria Feliciano • Edward T. Fergus • George Ferguson • Henry Fernandez • Jose Manuel Contreras Fernandez • Judy H. Fernandez • Elisa Giselle Ferraina • Anne Marie Sallerin Ferreira • Robert John Ferris • David Francis Ferrugio • Louis V. Fersini • Michael David Ferugio • Bradley James Fetchet • Jennifer Louise Fialko • Kristen Fiedel • Samuel Fields • Michael Bradley Finnegan • Timothy J. Finnerty • Michael Curtis Fiore • Stephen J. Fiorelli • Paul M. Fiori • John Fiorito • John R. Fischer • Andrew Fisher • Bennett Lawson Fisher • John Roger Fisher • Thomas J. Fisher • Lucy Fishman • Ryan D. Fitzgerald • Thomas Fitzpatrick • Richard P. Fitzsimons • Salvatore A. Fiumefreddo • Christina Donovan Flannery • Eileen Flecha • Andre G. Fletcher • Carl Flickinger • John Joseph Florio • Joseph W. Flounders • David Fodor • Michael N. Fodor • Steven Mark Fogel • Thomas Foley • David Fontana • Chih Min (Dennis) Foo • Del Rose Forbes-Cheatham • Godwin Forde • Donald A. Foreman • Christopher Hugh Forsythe • Claudia Alicia Martinez Foster • Noel J. Foster • Ana Fosteris • Robert J. Foti • Jeffrey L. Fox • Virginia Fox • Joan Francis • Pauline Francis • Virgin (Lucy) Francis • Gary J. Frank • Morton Frank • Peter Christopher Frank • Richard K. Fraser • Kevin Joseph Frawley • Clyde Frazier • Lillian I. Frederick • Andrew Fredericks • Jamitha Freemen • Brett O. Freiman • Peter L. Freund • Arlene E. Fried • Alan Wayne Friedlander • Andrew K. Friedman • Gregg J. Froehner • Peter Christian Fry • Clement Fumando • Steven Elliot Furman • Paul James Furmato

Fredric Gabler • Richard S. Gabrielle • James Andrew Gadiel • Pamela Gaff • Ervin Vincent Gailliard • Deanna L. Galante • Grace Galante • Anthony Edward Gallagher • Daniel James Gallagher • John Patrick Gallagher • Tomas Gallegos Linares • Cono E. Gallo • Vincenzo Gallucci • Thomas Edward Galvin • Giovanna (Genni) Gambale • Thomas Gambino • Giann F. Gamboa • Peter J. Ganci • Claude Michael Gann • Charles William Garbarini • Cesar Garcia • David Garcia • Jorge Luis Morron Garcia • Juan Garcia • Marlyn C. Garcia • Christopher Gardner • Douglas B. Gardner • Harvey J. Gardner • Jeffrey B. Gardner • Thomas A. Gardner • William Arthur Gardner • Francesco Garfi • Rocco Gargano • James M. Gartenberg • Matthew David Garvey • Bruce Gary • Boyd A. Gatton • Donald Richard Gavagan • Terence D. Gazzani • Gary Geidel • Paul Hamilton Geier • Julie M. Geis • Peter Gelinas • Steven Paul Geller • Howard G. Gelling • Peter Victor Genco • Steven Gregory Genovese • Alayne F. Gentul • Edward F. Geraghty • Suzanne Geraty • Ralph Gerhardt • Robert J. Gerlich • Denis P. Germain • Marina R. Gertsberg • Susan M. Getzendanner • James Gerard Geyer • Joseph M. Giaccone • Vincent Francis Giammona • Debra L. Gibbon • James A. Giberson • Craig Neil Gibson • Ronnie Gies • Laura A. Giglio • Andrew Clive Gilbert • Timothy Paul Gilbert • Paul Stuart Gilbey • Paul John Gill • Mark Y. Gilles • Evan H. Gillette • Ronald Gilligan • Rodney C. Gillis • Laura Gilly • John F. Ginley • Donna Marie Giordano • Jeffrey Giordano • John Giordano • Steven A. Giorgetti • Martin Giovinazzo • Jinny Lady Giraldo • Kum-Kum Girolamo • Salvatore Gitto • Cynthia Giugliano • Mon Gjonbalaj • Dianne Gladstone • Keith Alexander Glascoe • Thomas I. Glasser • Harry Glenn • Barry H. Glick • Steven Lawrence Glick • John T. Gnazzo • William (Bill) Robert Godshalk • Michael Gogliormella • Brian Fredric Goldberg • Jeffrey Grant Goldflam • Michelle Herman Goldstein • Monica Goldstein • Steven Goldstein • Andrew H. Golkin • Dennis James Gomes • Enrique Antonio Gomez • Jose Bienvenido Gomez • Manuel Gomez • Wilder Gomez • Jenine Gonzalez • Joel Guevara Gonzalez • Mauricio Gonzalez • Rosa J. Gonzalez • Calvin J. Gooding • Harry Goody • Kiran Reddy Gopu • Catherine Carmen Gorayeb • Kerene Gordon • Sebastian Gorki • Kieran Gorman • Thomas E. Gorman • Michael Edward Gould • Yugi Goya • Jon Richard Grabowski • Christopher Michael Grady • Edwin John Graf • David M. Graifman • Gilbert Granados • Elvira Granitto • Winston Arthur Grant • Christopher Stewart Gray • James Michael Gray • Linda Mair Grayling • John Michael Grazioso • Timothy Grazioso • Derrick Arthur Green • Wade Brian Green • Elaine Myra Greenberg • Gayle R. Greene • James Arthur Greenleaf • Eileen Marsha Greenstein • Elizabeth (Lisa) Martin Gregg • Denise Gregory • Donald H. Gregory • Florence M. Gregory • Pedro (David) Grehan • John M. Griffin • Tawanna Griffin • Joan D. Griffith • Warren Grifka • Ramon Grijalvo • Joseph F. Grillo • David Grimner • Kenneth Grouzalis • Joseph Grzelak • Matthew J. Grzymalski • Robert Joseph Gschaar • Liming (Michael) Gu • Jose A. Guadalupe • Yan Zhu (Cindy) Guan • Geoffrey E. Guja • Joseph Gullickson • Babita Guman • Douglas B. Gurian • Janet H. Gustafson • Philip T. Guza • Barbara Guzzardo • Peter Gyulavary

Gary Robert Haag • Andrea Lyn Haberman • Barbara M. Habib • Philip Haentzler • Nizam A. Hafiz • Karen Hagerty • Steven Hagis • Mary Lou Hague • David Halderman • Maile Rachel Hale • Richard Hall • Vaswald George Hall • Robert John Halligan • Vincent Gerard Halloran • James D. Halvorson • Mohammed Salman Hamdani • Felicia Hamilton • Robert Hamilton • Frederic Kim Han • Christopher James Hanley • Sean Hanley • Valerie Joan Hanna • Thomas Hannafin • Kevin James Hannaford • Michael L. Hannan • Dana Hannon • Vassilios G. Haramis • James A. Haran • Jeffrey P. Hardy • Timothy John Hargrave • Daniel Harlin • Frances Haros • Harvey L. Harrell • Stephen Gary Harrell • Aisha Harris • Stewart D. Harris • John Patrick Hart • John Clinton Hartz • Emeric J. Harvey • Thomas Theodore Haskell • Timothy Haskell • Joseph John Hasson • Leonard William Hatton • Terence S. Hatton • Michael Helmut Haub • Timothy Aaron Haviland • Donald G. Havlish • Anthony Hawkins • Nobuhiro Hayatsu • Philip Hayes • William Ward Haynes • Scott Hazelcorn • Michael K. Healey • Roberta Bernstein Heber • Charles Francis Xavier Heeran • John Heffernan • Howard Joseph Heller • JoAnn L. Heltibridle • Mark F. Hemschoot • Ronnie Lee Henderson • Janet Hendricks • Brian Hennessey • Michelle Marie Henrique • Joseph P. Henry • William Henry • John Henwood • Robert Allan Hepburn • Mary (Molly) Herencia • Lindsay Coates Herkness • Harvey Robert Hermer • Claribel Hernandez • Norberto Hernandez • Raul Hernandez • Gary Herold • Jeffrey A. Hersch • Thomas Hetzel • Brian Hickey • Ysidro Hidalgo-Tejada • Timothy Higgins • Robert D. Higley • Todd Russell Hill • Clara Victorine Hinds • Neal Hinds • Mark D. Hindy • Katsuyuki Hirai • Heather Malia Ho • Tara Yvette Hobbs • Thomas A. Hobbs • James L. Hobin • Robert Wayne Hobson • DaJuan Hodges • Ronald George Hoerner • Patrick Aloysius Hoey • Frederick J. Hoffman • Joseph Hoffman • Marcia Hoffman • Michele L. Hoffman • Stephen G. Hoffman • Judith Florence Hofmiller • Thomas Warren Hohlweck • Jonathan R. Hohmann • John Holland • Joseph Francis Holland • Elizabeth Holmes • Thomas P. Holohan • Bradley Hoorn • James P. Hopper • Montgomery McCullough Hord • Michael Horn • Matthew D. Horning • Robert L. Horohoe • Aaron Horwitz • Charles J. Houston • Uhuru G. Houston • George Howard • Michael C. Howell • Steven L. Howell • Jennifer L. Howley • Milagros Hromada • Marian Hrycak • Stephen Huczko • Kris R. Hughes • Melissa Harrington Hughes • Paul R. Hughes • Robert T. "Bobby" Hughes • Thomas F. Hughes • Timothy Robert Hughes • Susan Huie • Mychal Lamar Hulse • Kathleen (Casey) Hunt • William C. Hunt • Joseph G. Hunter • Robert Hussa • Thomas E. Hynes • Walter Hynes

Joseph Anthony Ianelli • Zuhtu Ibis • Jonathan Lee Ielpi • Michael Patrick Iken • Daniel Ilkanayev • Frederick Ill • Abraham Nethanel Ilowitz • Anthony P. Infante • Louis S. Inghilterra • Christopher N. Ingrassia • Paul Innella • Stephanie V. Irby • Douglas Irgang • Kristin A. Irvine-Ryan • Todd A. Isaac • Erik Hans Isbrandtsen • Taizo Ishikawa • Aram Iskenderian • John Iskyan • Kazushige Ito • Aleksandr Valeryerich Ivantsov

Virginia Jablonski • Brooke Alexandra Jackman • Aaron Jacobs • Ariel Louis Jacobs • Jason Kyle Jacobs • Michael Grady Jacobs • Steven A. Jacobson • Ricknauth Jaggernauth • Jake Denis Jagoda • Yudh V.S. Jain • Maria Jakubiak • Ernest James • Gricelda E. James • Mark Jardim • Mohammed Jawara • Francois Jean-Pierre • Maxima Jean-Pierre • Paul E. Jeffers • Joseph Jenkins • Alan K. Jensen • Prem N. Jerath • Farah Jeudy • Hweidar Jian • Fernando Jimenez Molina • Eliezer Jimenez • Luis Jimenez • Charles Gregory John • Nicholas John • LaShawana Johnson • Scott M. Johnson • William Johnston • Allison Horstmann Jones • Arthur Joseph Jones • Brian L. Jones • Christopher D. Jones • Donald T. Jones • Donald W. Jones • Linda Jones • Mary S. Jones • Andrew Jordan • Robert Thomas Jordan • Albert Joseph • Ingeborg Joseph • Karl Henri Joseph • Stephen Joseph • Jane Eileen Josiah • Anthony Jovic • Angel Luis Juarbe • Karen Susan Juday • Mychal Judge • Paul W. Jurgens • Thomas Edward Jurgens

Shashi Kiran Lakshmikantha Kadaba • Gavkharoy Mukhometovna Kamardinova • Shari Kandell • Howard Lee Kane • Jennifer Lynn Kane • Vincent D. Kane • Joon Koo Kang • Sheldon R. Kanter • Deborah H. Kaplan • Alvin Peter Kappelmann • Charles Karczewski • William A. Karnes • Douglas G. Karpiloff • Charles L. Kasper • Andrew Kates • John Katsimatides • Robert Kaulfers • Don Jerome Kauth • Hideya Kawauchi • Edward T. Keane • Richard M. Keane • Lisa Kearney-Griffin • Karol Ann Keasler • Paul Hanlon Keating • Leo Russell Keene • Joseph J. Keller • Peter Rodney Kellerman • Joseph P. Kellett • Frederick H. Kelley • James Joseph Kelly • Joseph A. Kelly • Maurice Patrick Kelly • Richard John Kelly • Thomas Michael Kelly • Thomas Richard Kelly • Thomas W. Kelly • Timothy C. Kelly • William Hill Kelly • Robert C. Kennedy • Thomas J. Kennedy • John Keohane • Ronald T. Kerwin • Howard L. Kestenbaum • Douglas D. Ketcham • Ruth E. Ketler • Boris Khalif • Sarah Khan • Taimour Firaz Khan • Rajesh Khandelwal • Bhowanie Devi Khemraj • SeiLai Khoo • Michael Kiefer • Satoshi Kikuchihara • Andrew Jay-Hoon Kim • Lawrence Don Kim • Mary Jo Kimelman • Lisa M. King-Johnson • Andrew Marshall King • Lucille T. King • Robert King • Takashi Kinoshita • Chris Michael Kirby • Howard (Barry) Kirschbaum • Glenn Davis Kirwin • Richard J. Klares • Peter A. Klein • Alan D. Kleinberg • Karen J. Klitzman • Ronald Philip Kloepfer • Andrew Knox • Thomas Patrick Knox • Yevgeny Knyazev • Rebecca Lee Koborie • Deborah Kobus • Gary Edward Koecheler • Frank J. Koestner • Ryan Kohart • Vanessa Lynn Kolpak • Irina Kolpakova • Suzanne Kondratenko • Abdoulaye Kone • Bon-seok Koo • Dorota Kopiczko • Scott Kopytko • Bojan Kostic • Danielle Kousoulis • John J. Kren • William Krukowski • Lyudmila Ksido • Shekhar Kumar • Kenneth Kumpel • Frederick Kuo • Patricia Kuras • Nauka Kushitani • Thomas Joseph Kuveikis • Victor Kwarkye • Kui Fai Kwok • Angela R. Kyte

Andrew LaCorte • Jeanette LaFond-Menichino • David LaForge • Michael Patrick LaForte • Stephen LaMantia • Carol Ann LaPlante • Jeannine M. LaVerde • Amarnauth Lachhman • Ganesh Ladkat • James P. Ladley • Joseph A. Lafalce • Alan Lafranco • Juan Lafuente • Neil K. Lai • Vincent A. Laieta • William David Lake • Franco Lalama • Chow Kwan Lam • Amy Hope Lamonsoff • Robert T. Lane • Brendan M. Lang • Rosanne P. Lang • Vanessa Langer • Mary Lou Langley • Peter J. Langone • Thomas Langone • Michele B. Lanza • Ruth Sheila Lapin • Ingeborg Astrid Desiree Lariby • Robin Larkey • Christopher Randall Larrabee • Hamidou S. Larry • Scott Larsen • John Adam Larson • Gary E. Lasko • Nicholas C. Lassman • Paul Laszczynski • Jeffrey Latouche • Charles Laurencin • Stephen James Lauria • Maria Lavache • Denis F. Lavelle • Anna A. Laverty • Steven Lawn • Robert A. Lawrence • Nathaniel Lawson • Eugen Lazar • David Prudencio LeMagne • Jeffrey Earle LeVeen • James Patrick Leahy • Joseph Gerard Leavey • Neil Leavy • Leon Lebor • Kenneth Charles Ledee • Alan J. Lederman • Elena Ledesma • Alexis Leduc • David S. Lee • Gary H. Lee • Hyun-joon (Paul) Lee • Jong-min Lee • Juanita Lee • Kathryn Blair Lee • Linda C. Lee • Lorraine Lee • Myung-woo Lee • Richard Y.C. Lee • Stuart (Soo-Jin) Lee • Yang Der Lee • Stephen Lefkowitz • Adriana Legro • Edward J. Lehman • Eric Andrew Lehrfeld • David Ralph Leistman • Joseph A. Lenihan • John J. Lennon • John Robinson Lenoir • Jorge Luis Leon • Matthew Gerard Leonard • Michael Lepore • Charles Antoine Lesperance • John D. Levi • Alisha Caren Levin • Neil D. Levin • Robert M. Levine • Robert Levine • Shai Levinhar • Adam J. Lewis • Margaret Susan Lewis • Ye Wei Liang • Orasri Liangthanasarn • Daniel F. Libretti • Ralph M. Licciardi • Edward Lichtschein • Steven B. Lillianthal • Carlos R. Lillo • Craig Damian Lilore • Arnold A. Lim • Darya Lin • Wei Rong Lin • Nickie L. Lindo • Thomas V. Linehan • Robert Thomas Linnane • Alan Linton • Diane Theresa Lipari • Kenneth P. Lira • Francisco Alberto Liriano • Lorraine Lisi • Paul Lisson • Vincent Litto • Ming-Hao Liu • Joseph Livera • Nancy Liz • Harold Lizcano • Martin Lizzul • George A. Llanes • Elizabeth Claire Logler • Catherine Lisa Loguidice • Jerome Robert Lohez • Michael W. Lomax • Laura M. Longing • Salvatore P. Lopes • Daniel Lopez • George Lopez • Luis Lopez • Manuel L. Lopez • Joseph Lostrangio • Chet Louie • Stuart Seid Louis • Joseph Lovero • Michael W. Lowe • Garry Lozier • John Peter Lozowsky • Charles Peter Lucania • Edward (Ted) H. Luckett • Mark G. Ludvigsen • Lee Charles Ludwig • Sean Thomas Lugano • Daniel Lugo • Marie Lukas • William Lum • Michael P. Lunden • Christopher Lunder • Anthony Luparello • Gary Lutnick • Linda Luzzicone • Alexander Lygin • Farrell Peter Lynch • James Francis Lynch • Louise A. Lynch • Michael F. Lynch • Michael Francis Lynch • Michael Lynch • Richard Dennis Lynch • Robert H. Lynch • Sean Patrick Lynch • Sean Lynch • Michael J. Lyons • Monica Lyons • Patrick Lyons

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Gregory Wachtler • Gabriela Waisman • Courtney Wainsworth Walcott • Victor Wald • Benjamin Walker • Glen J. Wall • Mitchel Scott Wallace • Peter G. Wallace • Robert F. Wallace • Roy Michael Wallace • Jean Marie Wallendorf • Matthew Blake Wallens • John Wallice • Barbara P. Walsh • James Walsh • Jeffrey Patrick Walz • Ching H. Wang • Weibin Wang • Michael Warchola • Stephen Gordon Ward • James A. Waring • Brian G. Warner • Derrick Washington • Charles Waters • James Thomas (Muddy) Waters • Patrick J. Waters • Kenneth Watson • Michael H. Waye • Todd C. Weaver • Walter E. Weaver • Nathaniel Webb • Dinah Webster • Joanne Flora Weil • Michael Weinberg • Steven Weinberg • Scott Jeffrey Weingard • Steven Weinstein • Simon Weiser • David M. Weiss • David T. Weiss • Vincent Michael Wells • Timothy Matthew Welty • Christian Hans Rudolf Wemmers • Ssu-Hui (Vanessa) Wen • Oleh D. Wengerchuk • Peter M. West • Whitfield West • Meredith Lynn Whalen • Eugene Whelan • Adam S. White • Edward James White • James Patrick White • John S. White • Kenneth W. White • Leonard Anthony White • Malissa White • Wayne White • Leanne Marie Whiteside • Mark Whitford • Michael T. Wholey • Mary Lenz Wieman • Jeffrey David Wiener • William J. Wik • Allison M. Wildman • Glenn Wilkinson • John C. Willett • Brian Patrick Williams • Crossley Williams • David Williams • Deborah Lynn Williams • Kevin Michael Williams • Louie Anthony Williams • Louis Calvin Williams • John Williamson • Cynthia Wilson • Donna Wilson • William E. Wilson • David H. Winton • Glenn J. Winuk • Thomas Francis Wise • Alan L. Wisniewski • Frank T. Wisniewski • David Wiswall • Sigrid Charlotte Wiswe • Michael R. Wittenstein • Christopher W. Wodenshek • Martin P. Wohlforth • Katherine S. Wolf • Jennifer Y. Wong • Jenny Seu Kueng Low Wong • Siu Cheung Wong • Yin Ping (Steven) Wong • Yuk Ping Wong • Brent James Woodall • James J. Woods • Patrick Woods • Richard Herron Woodwell • David Terence Wooley • John Bentley Works • Martin Michael Wortley • Rodney James Wotton • William Wren • John Wright • Neil R. Wright • Sandra Wright

Jupiter Yambem • Suresh Yanamadala • Matthew David Yarnell • Myrna Yaskulka • Shakila Yasmin • Olabisi L. Yee • Edward P. York • Kevin Patrick York • Raymond York • Suzanne Youmans • Barrington L. Young • Jacqueline (Jakki) Young • Elkin Yuen

Joseph Zaccoli • Adel Agayby Zakhary • Arkady Zaltsman • Edwin J. Zambrana • Robert Alan Zampieri • Mark Zangrilli • Ira Zaslow • Kenneth Albert Zelman • Abraham J. Zelmanowitz • Martin Morales Zempoaltecatl • Zhe (Zack) Zeng • Marc Scott Zeplin • Jie Yao Justin Zhao • Ivelin Ziminski • Michael Joseph Zinzi • Charles A. Zion • Julie Lynne Zipper • Salvatore J. Zisa • Prokopios Paul Zois • Joseph J. Zuccala • Andrew Steven Zucker • Igor Zukelman

Christian Adams • Lorraine G. Bay • Todd Beamer • Alan Beaven • Mark K. Bingham • Deora Frances Bodley • Sandra W. Bradshaw • Marion Britton • Thomas E. Burnett • William Joseph Cashman • Georgine Rose Corrigan • Patricia Cushing • Jason Dahl • Joseph Deluca • Patrick Joseph Driscoll • Edward P. Felt • Jane C. Folger • Colleen Laura Fraser • Andrew Garcia • Jeremy Glick • Lauren Grandcolas • Wanda Anita Green • Donald F. Greene • Linda Gronlund • Richard Jerry Guadagno • LeRoy Wilton Homer • Toshiya Kuge • CeeCee Lyles • Hilda Marcin • Waleska Martinez Rivera • Nicole Miller • Louis J. Nacke • Donald Arthur Peterson • Jean Hoadley Peterson • Mark Rothenberg • Christine Anne Snyder • John Talignani • Honor Elizabeth Wainio • Deborah Welsh • Olga Kristin Gould White

Paul W. Ambrose • Yeneneh Betru • Mary Jane (MJ) Booth • Bernard Curtis Brown • Charles F. Burlingame • Suzanne M. Calley • William E. Caswell • David M. Charlebois • Sara M. Clark • Asia S. Cottom • James Daniel Debeuneure • Rodney Dickens • Eddie A. Dillard • Charles A. Droz • Barbara G. Edwards • Charles S. Falkenberg • Dana Falkenberg • Zoe Falkenberg • James Joseph Ferguson • Darlene E. Flagg • Wilson F. Flagg • Richard P. Gabriel • Ian J. Gray • Stanley R. Hall • Michele M. Heidenberger • Bryan C. Jack • Steven D. Jacoby • Ann C. Judge • Chandler R. Keller • Yvonne E. Kennedy • Norma Cruz Khan • Karen Ann Kincaid • Dong Chul Lee • Jennifer Lewis • Kenneth E. Lewis • Renee A. May • Dora Marie Menchaca • Christopher C. Newton • Barbara K. Olson • Ruben S. Ornedo • Robert Penninger • Robert R. Ploger • Zandra F. Ploger • Lisa J. Raines • Todd H. Reuben • John P. Sammartino • Diane M. Simmons • George W. Simmons • Mari-Rae Sopper • Robert Speisman • Norma Lang Steuerle • Hilda E. Taylor • Leonard E. Taylor • Sandra D. Teague • Leslie A. Whittington • John D. Yamnicky • Vicki C. Yancey • Shuyin Yang • Yuguang Zheng

Craig Amundson • Melissa Rose Barnes • Max J. Beilke • Kris Romeo Bishundat • Carrie R. Blagburn • Canfield D. Boone • Diana Borrero de Padro • Donna Bowen • Allen P. Boyle • Christopher Lee Burford • Daniel Martin Caballero • Jose Orlando Calderon-Olmedo • Angelene C. Carter • Sharon A. Carver • John J. Chada • Rosa Maria (Rosemary) Chapa • Julian T. Cooper • Eric A. Cranford • Ada M. Davis • Gerald Francis DeConto • Jerry Don Dickerson • Johnnie Doctor • Robert Edward Dolan • William Howard Donovan • Patrick Dunn • Edward Thomas Earhart • Robert Randolph Elseth • Jamie Lynn Fallon • Amelia V. Fields • Gerald P. Fisher • Matthew Michael Flocco • Sandra N. Foster • Lawrence Daniel Getzfred • Cortez Ghee • Brenda C. Gibson • Ron F. Golinski • Diane M. Hale-McKinzy • Carolyn B. Halmon • Sheila M. S. Hein • Ronald John Hemenway • Wallace Cole Hogan • Jimmie Ira Holley • Angela M. Houtz • Brady K. Howell • Peggie M. Hurt • Stephen Neil Hyland • Robert J. Hymel • Lacey B. Ivory • Dennis M. Johnson • Judith L. Jones • Brenda Kegler • Michael Scott Lamana • David W. Laychak • Samantha L. Lightbourn-Allen • Stephen V. Long • James T. Lynch • Terence M. Lynch • Nehamon Lyons • Shelley A. Marshall • Teresa M. Martin • Ada L. Mason-Acker • Dean E. Mattson • Timothy J. Maude • Robert J. Maxwell • Molly L. McKenzie • Patricia E. (Patti) Mickley • Ronald D. Milam • Gerard (Jerry) P. Moran • Odessa V. Morris • Brian Anthony Moss • Teddington H. Moy • Patrick Jude Murphy • Khang Ngoc Nguyen • Michael Allen Noeth • Chin Sun Pak • Jonas Martin Panik • Clifford L. Patterson • Darin Howard Pontell • Scott Powell • Jack D. Punches • Joseph John Pycior • Deborah A. Ramsaur • Rhonda Sue Rasmussen • Marsha Dianah Ratchford • Martha M. Reszke • Cecelia E. Richard • Edward V. Rowenhorst • Judy Rowlett • Robert E. Russell • William R. Ruth • Charles E. Sabin • Marjorie C. Salamone • David M. Scales • Robert Allan Schlegel • Janice M. Scott • Michael L. Selves • Marian H. Serva • Dan Frederic Shanower • Antionette M. Sherman • Donald D. Simmons • Cheryle D. Sincock • Gregg Harold Smallwood • Gary F. Smith • Patricia J. Statz • Edna L. Stephens • Larry L. Strickland • Kip P. Taylor • Sandra C. Taylor • Karl W. Teepe • Tamara C. Thurman • Otis Vincent Tolbert • Willie Q. Troy • Ronald James Vauk • Karen J. Wagner • Meta L. Waller • Maudlyn A. White • Sandra L. White • Ernest M. Willcher • David Lucian Williams • Dwayne Williams • Marvin R. Woods • Kevin Wayne Yokum • Donald McArthur Young • Edmond G. Young • Lisa L. Young

h/t Washington Post